The KP recognizes "Annex 1" countries, developed countries, which are responsible for most of the cumulative greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, as having special responsibility for carbon greenhouse gas emission reductions. Here is a graph of carbon emissions up to the year 2000 by region:
Countries other than Annex 1 have no emission reduction responsibility under the KP. However China and India among other non-Annex 1 countries have rapidly increased emissions since 2000, and China is currently the #1 emitter on a country basis (though not on a per-capita basis). For this reason, the U.S. never ratified the KP.
The Durban Platform adopted at the Durban Climate Conference (2011) and the Doha Conference (2012) extended the KP past 2012. In addition, the distinction between Annex 1 and other countries in terms of emissions reduction responsibilities is to be abolished in a future climate treaty to be negotiated, but which is expected to be implemented only after 2020.
Right-wing media regularly attack the KP as being expensive and ineffective. This is part of the climate denier/contrarian/faux-skeptic agenda that no mitigation of climate change is worthwhile, based on flawed analyses that minimize climate risks and maximize mitigation expense. For an analysis of contrarian positions, see HERE.
In light of the overwhelming scientific consensus on climate change and its worsening impacts, and the related issue of air pollution from burning fossil fuels, the United States and China recognize the urgent need for action to meet these twin challenges. Both sides reaffirm their commitment to contribute significantly to successful 2015 global efforts to meet this challenge. Accordingly, China and the United States will work together, within the vehicle of the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group (CCWG) launched last year, to collaborate through enhanced policy dialogue, including the sharing of information regarding their respective post-2020 plans to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Regarding practical cooperative actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants, the two sides have reached agreement on the implementation plans on the five initiatives launched under the CCWG, including Emission Reductions from Heavy Duty and Other Vehicles, Smart Grids, Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage, Collecting and Managing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data, and Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Industry, and commit to devote significant effort and resources to secure concrete results by the Sixth U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue in 2014.
HERE are links to UN organizations involved with climate change, the 2007 Bali Road Map, the 1992 Rio Declaration, the Commission on Sustainable Development, and NGO activities on climate change, including the NGO Committee on Sustainable Development (NY).
The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) regularly undertakes work on methodological and scientific matters as they relate to the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol process. Some of the issues the SBSTA is currently dealing with are scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of mitigation of climate change; land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF); bunker fuels; and research and systematic observation.
Scientific, Technical and Socio-Economic Aspects of Mitigation of Climate Change The ultimate objective of the Convention is the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Accordingly, under Article 4.1(b) of the Convention, all Parties are required to undertake efforts to mitigate climate change.
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD) This web portal aims to facilitate access by developing countries to information made available by Parties, relevant organizations and stakeholders in a number of areas related to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries.
Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) The UNFCCC defines “sink” as “any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere”. The development of policy on “sinks” has evolved to cover emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct human-induced land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities and thus, the acronym LULUCF is now used to refer to this sector.
Emissions Resulting from Fuel Used for International Transportation: Aviation and Marine "Bunker Fuels" In accordance with the IPCC Guidelines for the preparation of greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories and the UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual inventories, emissions from international aviation and maritime transportation (also known as international bunker fuel emissions) should be calculated as part of the national GHG inventories of Parties, but should be excluded from national totals and reported separately. These emissions are not subject to the limitation and reduction commitments of Annex I Parties under the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol.
Research and Systematic Observation The Convention calls on Parties to promote and cooperate in research and systematic observation of the climate system, including through support to existing international programmes and networks (see Articles 4.1(g) and 5). In doing so, the Convention commits Parties to cooperate to improve the capacities of developing countries to participate in research and systematic observation. “Research and Systematic Observation” has regularly been an agenda item of the SBSTA since its seventeenth session.
Other Methodological Issues This section includes information about interactions with the ozone layer; the Brazilian proposal; single projects; review of methodological work; Third Assessment Report of the IPCC; and links to sources of data on greenhouse gas emissions and to socio-economic data and tools.
Interim talks are held between the annual climate conferences. For example, from the April 2013 Bonn Climate Change meeting, HERE is the press briefing from the UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figuereas:
HERE is a video report on the Bonn talks (June, 2011), and HERE is information about talks in Bangkok (April 2011), in preparation for Durban, and HERE is information about intermediate talks in preparation for Cancun, in Germany (2010).
This talk covers the science of climate change and global warming, impacts and mitigation, emissions, carbon politics, carbon finance, and contrarians. It was given at Fordham...
The Sabin Center for Climate Change Law at Columbia ULast Updated on 2017-01-29 10:05:32
The Sabin Center for Climate Change Law
The Sabin Center develops legal techniques to fight climate change, trains students and lawyers in their use, and provides up-to-date resources on key topics in climate change law and regulation.
Here are the Sabin Center key activities in 2016
Here is the Climate Deregulation Tracker
Here is the extensive document of CLIMATE CHANGE LITIGATION IN THE U.S.
Clean Air Act
Clean Power Plan
Clean Water Act
Cap & Trade
Nuclear... More »
Marrakech 2016 Climate Conference COP22Last Updated on 2017-01-16 08:16:05
Marrakech 2016 Climate Conference COP22
Start Implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement
Cars form a giant ‘1.5C’ to support the goal of the 2015 Paris Agreement. 2016 World Advanced Vehicle Expedition (WAVE) rally held outside the gates of the UN European headquarters in Geneva in June 2016. Photo: CVF / UNDP
Outcomes of the Marrakech Conference
MARRAKECH VISION TEXT
Document List from Marrakech
Letter to Jonathan Pershing from Peter Morales
The NGOCSD-NY Paper for the Marrakech Conference
Marrakech UUA Observer Blog
What's at Marrakech COP22
News Coverage for COP22
Outcomes of the Marrakech Conference
THE MARRAKECH COMMUNIQUE
The Marrakech Vision
World Leaders Issue Proclamation Underlining ‘Irreversible’... More »
Paris Climate Conference 2015 COP21Last Updated on 2017-01-16 08:15:15
Paris Climate Conference 2015 UN-COP21
BLOG Paris Climate Conference - Click HERE
CLICK FOR: INFO, UUA Observers, NGOCSD paper, Text Paris Agreement, U.S. INDC, Ethics of INDCs - Panel, List of side events, VIDEO - How to get to 2 Degrees, NGOCSD Presentation
US Climate Special Envoy Stern on the 2015 Paris Climate Conference
Pres. Obama speaks at the Paris Climate Conference
INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS (INDCs) for the Paris Climate Conference: U.S. , CHINA , INDIA , EUROPE , OTHERS.
The United States and China Issue Joint Statement on Climate Change
U.S. and India: Climate and Clean Energy Cooperation
US and China: Climate Agreement 2014
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HERE is the list of heads of state that spoke on Nov. 30. Each has 3-5 minutes. Obama spoke at... More »